Shigella bacteria occur in many different varieties and all of these varieties have almost the same similar structure. Bacteria usually enter the human body through the mouth. Then they find the appropriate environment and settle in the body. Bacteria that settle on the mucosa in the large intestine begin to multiply rapidly over time. Microbes multiply very quickly. The rapid proliferation causes the red blood cells in the blood to proliferate. Deep wounds are also seen in the body. The bacteria that cause the disease are also found in people who are sick and carriers. People who have entered the healing process of the disease are called carriers. During this process, patients should be avoided. The disease is transmitted through dirty environment, feces and mouth.
2. Dirty Water
Polluted waters, which are among the causes of many different diseases, are among the biggest reasons for the emergence of dysentery disease. Harmful bacteria that cause disease are concentrated in dirty water. When you consume these waters, harmful bacteria start to settle in your body quickly.
3. Unhygienic Food
Poorly cleaned or uncleaned food causes dysentery. Poultry carrying many poultry bacteria are put on food that is sold on the streets in an open top and unsuitable for hygiene. This situation causes the contamination of microbes on the food. Also, vegetables and fruits that are not washed well can cause dysentery.
How Is Dysentery Transmitted?
Being close to places where microorganisms that cause dysentery live or being in close contact with patients leads to the transmission of dysentery. Different types of dirt are transmitted orally from places such as human feces and sewage waste. Not washing hands when leaving the toilet or consuming food that has not been cleaned in sufficient quantities also causes the disease to be easily transmitted.
Flying poultry placed in the feces of the patients also cause the disease to spread faster. War, famine, polluted water, schools, dormitories and crowded societies prepare a suitable environment for the transmission of the disease. Bacteria that cause the disease are found in sick and carrier individuals. For this reason, hands should be washed well after contact with patients and carriers.
What are the Symptoms of Dysentery?
One of the most obvious symptoms of dysentery disease is abdominal pain that increases in severity. Dysentery is a life-threatening disease when left untreated and causes severe muscle cramps. Many different symptoms such as bloody, inflamed and mucous diarrhea, fever and chills, nausea and vomiting, weakness and constipation are among the symptoms of dysentery disease.
These symptoms occur between 1 and 3 days after the germs and bacteria that cause the disease enter the body. However, it may take weeks or months for symptoms to appear in some cases. In this case, it causes damage to some internal organs other than the intestine.
1. Abdominal Pain
Dysentery is a disease that directly affects the bowel and colon. Dysentery, which causes severe pain in the abdominal cavity, causes inflammation in the intestines or colon with the increase of pain experienced in abdominal pain. The bacteria that cause the disease have inflammatory properties.
Diarrhea, which causes pain in the abdominal cavity, occurs differently from the normal course of time when dysentery occurs. Diarrhea occurs in patients with inflammation, mucus and blood. Since there is inflammation in the intestines and there is inflammation in the intestines, the stool also contains some blood. Patients experience excessive water and mineral loss along with diarrhea.
3.Fever and Chills
Parasites and bacteria entering the body from outside encounter microorganisms. Since dysentery is a disease caused by bacteria, organisms cause chills and high fever. Fever and chills are among the important symptoms of dysentery disease.
4. Nausea and Vomiting
Dysentery can lead to poisoning. For this reason, the body experiences problems such as nausea and vomiting in response to this situation. Some people do not experience vomiting. But nausea and loss of appetite are seen.
Fatigue occurs in many diseases originating from bacteria. When bacteria enter the body, it causes the person to feel exhausted and weak.
6.Frequent urges to go to the toilet
The disease causes patients to go to the toilet continuously due to severe diarrhea. Even in cases where there is no desire to defecate, patients always want to go to the toilet. This situation may also be a symptom of different diseases.
How Is Dysentery Treated?
Dysentery treatment can be applied with and without medication. Rehydration therapy, antibiotic therapy and antirheumatic drugs can also be used in the treatment process.
1. Rehydration Therapy
Therapy is started with oral rehydration methods. Patients should consume plenty of fluids during this period. Encouraging patients to use fluids increases the rate of fluid and minerals lost during the disease process. If diarrhea and vomiting are progressing excessively, fluid change is performed via vascular access.
2. Antibiotic and Amoeba-Killing Drug Treatment
Drug treatment methods are used to treat dysentery while laboratory tests are awaited. According to the severity of the symptoms, antibiotics and amoebic killers are given to the patients.
If the symptoms are not extremely severe, the doctor does not administer medication to the patient who is determined to have bacillus dysentery. In this case, patients will most likely recover with non-drug treatment methods. Patients, who are among the examples of the species, recover in a short time, such as an average of 1 week.
Rehydration to be taken orally during this period is of great importance.
When an amoebic type of disease is diagnosed, patients should be treated with antimicrobial drugs for 10 days. Medicines reduce the symptoms of the disease. It also ensures that the amoeba cannot shelter in the body.
Antirheumatic drugs are used in mild diseases. Depending on the course of the disease, this drug treatment can be started by the doctor. Antirheumatic drugs are recommended for species caused by amoeba infection.
The Healing Process of Dysentery Disease
The healing process of dysentery disease varies according to the severity and progress of the disease. Dysentery should be handled in 2 separate stages. In the second stage, the treatment period varies between 10 and 20 days. Towards the end of the 20th day, patients can continue their normal lives. In the first stage of the disease, the healing process varies between 7 and 12 days. If stage 1 is left untreated, the disease progresses rapidly to stage 2.
If the disease is extremely severe, treatment should be done in the hospital. The infection in the intestines prevents the patient from eating a healthy diet. In this process, it affects the patient's healing process negatively. Patients are fed with high-calorie foods and small bites. Patients who cannot be fed orally are fed via vascular access. When antibiotics that prevent the formation of the infection in the intestines are used, the healing and treatment process is completed between 10 and 15 days.