What is Dysentery Disease?
Dysentery is a disease that develops with infection and inflammation (inflammation) of the intestines, although it is mostly the large intestine. Basically, two different types of dysentery are seen. Bacilli dysentery, which is the most common type, occurs as a result of infection with one of the Shigella species. Even the introduction of about 10 Shigella type bacteria into the body is sufficient for the development of the disease. Bacteria in the body; In areas where water and food cleanliness cannot be achieved, it is taken through the consumption of contaminated food. Another type of dysentery, amoebic dysentery, occurs when the parasite called Entamoeba Histolytica infects the intestine. Amoebic dysentery is a rarer condition and usually occurs in local areas where cleaning conditions are poor.
The symptoms of dysentery are generally similar in the bacilli and amoebic type, but some differences can be observed between the two types. Symptoms can be severe in some people, and some people may not have any symptoms.
Symptoms in bacilli dysentery generally begin within 1-3 days after the bacteria is ingested. This time can vary from person to person.
Common symptoms in bacilli dysentery:
Diarrhea accompanying abdominal cramps
Quickly 38? rising fire
Nausea and vomiting
Can be counted as bloody or mucous diarrhea.
Amoebic dysentery usually causes no symptoms. Symptoms of the disease occur 2-4 weeks after the amoeba is ingested.
Common symptoms in amoebic dysentery:
It can be listed as fever
Although rare, amoebic dysentery leads to the formation of liver abscess, which is characterized by the collection of pus in the liver. In this case, in addition to the above symptoms, it may cause serious symptoms such as pain in the upper right part of the abdomen and swelling in the liver.
Dysentery can cause complications in some cases. Complications of dysentery:
Post-infectious arthritis: After infection with Shigella species, joint pain, eye irritation and painful urination can be seen.
• Infection passes into the blood: Bacteria that cause dysentery can mix into the blood and cause a serious infection picture that spreads throughout the body. It is a condition especially seen in people with weakened immune systems.
• Having a seizure: It is a condition seen especially in young children. The reason is not fully understood. It usually resolves without the need for treatment.
• Hemolytic uremic syndrome: It is seen as a result of Shigella type that causes dysentery secretion of toxin that causes destruction of red blood cells.
What Causes Dysentery and How Is Dysentery Transmitted?
Amoebic and bacillus dysentery is common in areas with poor cleaning infrastructure. Contact of a sick person with a healthy person also causes the disease to spread rapidly. In the formation and spread of dysentery;
Consumption of contaminated food and beverages
The infected person does not pay attention to hand hygiene
Swimming in contaminated water sources such as pools and lakes
Situations such as physical contact with the infected person are effective.
Children are in the higher risk group for bacilli dysentery, but the disease can be seen in people of all ages. Bacilli dysentery can be easily spread through the consumption of contaminated food and contact with an infected person. The disease can be transmitted to many people, especially in places such as nursing homes, nurseries and schools.
Amoebic dysentery is mainly spread through the consumption of contaminated food and the use of contaminated water. It can cause local epidemics in areas with low hygiene standards. Amoebic dysentery in children can spread rapidly as they come in close contact with each other. For this reason, children who show symptoms of dysentery do not go to school and do not have close contact with their siblings.
How is Dysentery Diagnosis and Treatment?
The symptoms seen in the patient are of great importance for the diagnosis of dysentery. It can lead to excessive fluid loss through dysentery, vomiting and diarrhea, especially in children and infants. This fluid loss may not be easily tolerated by the younger age group. For this reason, it would be beneficial to take the children with dysentery symptoms to the nearest health facility.
To diagnose dysentery; questions the duration and form of diarrhea and vomiting, food consumed in recent days, history of eating outside, swimming in a pool or lake, history of travel to the province or abroad. The answers to these questions are of great importance in the diagnosis of the disease. The stool test may be ordered to determine the cause of dysentery. With the stool test, it is understood whether the factor causing the disease is a bacterium or a virus, and a treatment plan is made accordingly.
Dysentery treatment is done according to whether the disease is bacilli or amoebic type.
In bacilli dysentery, if the symptoms are mild, drinking plenty of fluids and resting will be sufficient for treatment. Fluid lost from the body due to illness causes serious dehydration. Therefore, as in other types of diarrhea, compensation of fluid loss by consuming plenty of fluids is one of the important components of the treatment in bacilli dysentery. In cases where symptoms are mild and suggestions such as fluid consumption and rest are applied, the recovery period of dysentery is usually 1 week. In this process, the disease may disappear without the need for medication. However, if symptoms are severe, antibiotics may be required. Recovery is provided by the doctor with antibiotic treatment for Shigella species.
Anti-diarrhea medication should not be used in bacilli dysentery. Preventing diarrhea causes bacteria that cause dysentery to stay in the gut for longer periods of time and can worsen the disease.
Treatment of amoebic dysentery aims to eliminate the parasite that causes the disease. The use of medicines given for this purpose for about 10 days ensures the destruction of the parasite. In addition to medications, it is also important to take plenty of fluids and rest for a sufficient time in the treatment of this disease.
In cases where dysentery leads to severe dehydration, fluid loading may be required by opening vascular access to patients. Conditions such as excessive thirst, dry mouth, sagging eyes, and no tears when crying in babies may indicate dehydration. If a person with dysentery has one or more of these symptoms, the nearest health institution should be consulted.
There are recommended steps for the person with dysentery to avoid spreading the disease to healthy people:
Washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds after the toilet
Not to return to school, office, workplace before 48 hours after the disappearance of dysentery symptoms
Minimizing contact with other people in the workplace if one has to go to work during dysentery
Not preparing food, not going swimming, not having sexual contact before 48 hours after the symptoms disappear
Staying away from other people until symptoms improve
Washing dirty clothes, sheets, towels in the hottest program possible
Frequently disinfecting the toilet and fountains in the bathroom is one of these practices.
Although dysentery usually resolves spontaneously, it is also a condition that can lead to serious consequences. It may cause problems related to fluid loss, especially in children and elderly patients. In cases where dysentery symptoms are severe or do not improve within a few days, the nearest health facility should be consulted.